Published: 04th October 2006
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India or Bharat, the fifth largest and the second most populated country in the world, is one of the few countries which can boast of an ancient, deep-rooted and diverse culture, which stretches back to 5000 years. There is an endless diversity in India starting from its physical features to Geologic structure, fauna and flora, demographic structure, races, languages, religions, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. India has been variously described as "the Mini World", the "epitome of the world" and an "ethnological museum". One such diversity pertains to the existence of people from different anthropological stocks in India.

The people of India belong to different anthropological stocks and are divided into six main ethnic groups: (1) The Negritos or the brachycephalic (broad headed) people from Africa were the earliest people to inhabit India. They are survived in their original habitat in the Andaman Islands. The Jarawas, Onges, Sentelenese and Great Andamanis tribes are the main Negritoid tribes of India. (2) The Pro-Australoids or Austrics was the next group to come to India after the Negritos, which soon spread over the whole of India, Myanmar and the islands of South East Asia. They are said to "form the bedrock of the people", as they were the main builders of the Indus Valley Civilisation. (3) The Mongoloids have features that are common to those of the people of Mongolia, China and Tibet. These tribal groups are located in the Northeastern part of India in states like Assam, Nagaland, Meghalya and Sikkim and also in the Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir as well as the Nicobar Islands. (4) The Mediterranean or Dravidian group came to India from the Southwest Asia and appear to be people of the same stock as the peoples of Asia Minor and Crete and the pre-Hellenic Aegeans of Greece. (5) The Western Brachycephals include the Alpinoids, Dinaries and Armenois. The Coorgis and Parsis fall into this category. (6) The Nordics or Indo-Aryans are the last immigrants into India, who must have come into India between 2000 and 1500 B.C. The Nordic Aryans were a branch of Indo-Iranians, who had originally left their homes in Central Asia, some 5000 years ago, and had settled in Mesopotamia for some centuries. These tribes are now mainly found in the Northwest and the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP).

When I was in India in August this year for my annual leave, I decided to take a holiday to the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, popularly known as the Emerald Islands, which are rated as one of the most beautiful, virgin and eco-friendly islands in the world. One thing that fascinated me most about the Andaman & Nicobar Islands was the existence of several primitive tribes, many of them represent the earliest inhabitants into India.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are the treasure houses of several primitive tribes, many of which are facing extinction. The tribes are primarily of two stocks: Mongoloid and the Negroid. The Great Andamanese, Onges, Jarawas and Sentinelese are dominant among the Negroid tribes and are concentrated in the Andaman District. Their background and origin is unclear and continues to be a subject of speculation among scholars and anthropologists. Studies have indicated that the Onges tribes have been living in the Andamans for the last 60,000 years. The Andaman communities, divided into eramtaga (jungle-dwellers), and ar-yuato (coast dwellers), subsist on fish, turtles, turtle eggs, pigs, fruits, honey and roots. The Nicobarese and Shompens are the Mongoloid tribes that are concentrated in the Nicobar District. The Nicobarese, who claim descent from a Burmese prince, were identified as lokenje (naked people) by the renowned Chinese traveler I-Tsing.

The forest-dwelling Jarawas are perhaps the most easily accessible among the Negritoid tribes of Andaman. The Jarawas have remained in isolation for aeons, living in the rain forests at peace with nature for centuries The Jarawas have traditionally greeted outsiders aggressively, firing arrows at settlers whose cattle and fields encroach upon the vital resources and occasionally robbing the passengers of their food. No wonder these tribes were classified as "hostile" by the District Administration.

One incident that took place in October 1997 completely changed the Jarawa vision about the outside world. A boy named Enmay, who had fractured his leg after getting caught in an animal trap, was rescued by the district authorities and admitted into a hospital in Port Blair. This was for the first time ever that any member from the extremely hostile Jarawas came out from the forests to interact with the settler populations. When the boy was left back into the forests after his recovery, he carried with him good memories of his interaction with the mainlanders, which opened the door for interaction with the Jarawas. Later, facing an acute shortage of food in their territory, many Jarawas came out of deep forests to more open areas. With the increasing interactions between the Jarawas and the district authorities, their classification also changed from "hostile" to "friendly". The interactions have been so much intensified that some Jarawas have even managed to pick up a few Hindi words and memorize popular Hindi songs. This remarkable incident has been termed as the "Enmay Revolution".

The nearest tribal area from Port Blair is the Jarawa Reserve, about 150 km away on the Andaman Trunk Road that connects Port Blair with Mayabunder. The area of the Jarawa reserve has some of the best and largest sources of timber that still survive in the islands. In order to go to the main Jarawa Reserve one has to take a ferry to the Uttara Jetty on another island and drive down for about 75 km in the Reserve Forest. A smaller Jarawa settlement is also found in the Kadamtala area, about 60 km from Port Blair. The entire Jarawa Reserve is spread over an area of 765 square kilometers on the western coast of the Middle and South Andaman Islands. The entry into the Jarawa area requires a written permission from the Superintendent of Police, Andaman District and a vehicle entry permit from the police outpost at Jirkatang, about 50 kms from Port Blair.

We ventured out to see the Jarawas along with Dr Pronob K. Sircar, an eminent sociologist and an authority on the Jarawas, and some officials of the Directorate of Tribal Welfare, Port Blair. We carried with us lot of bananas, biscuits and other eatables with the intention of offering them to the Jarawas. We were fortunate to encounter a small hutment of the Jarawas at Kadamtala itself. The group, comprising of about half a dozen members, thronged to our jeep to take the bananas. Some of them started asking us questions in the Jarawa language: ni Atiba? Li Dimo? Dr Sircar translated these as: What is your name? How are you? We could see a distinct expression of joy on their faces at the sight of so many bananas. Incidentally, banana is the most favourite food of the Jarawas, which is cherished equally by the young and the old. The Jarawas are good at hunting and fishing. They, however, do not kill deer and the birds. The deer, which are referred as 'potiyal' in the Jarawa language, are considered as "evil spirits" and are left alone!

We even had an opportunity to go inside a Jarawa hut. The huts are fairly small, made up of bamboo and dried coconut leaves, tied together by means of ropes. Inside the hut, a traditional earthen stove or "chulha" is placed in the centre, which is used by the Jarawas to cook raw meat and fish. One can find huge bunches of raw bananas hanging from the ceiling, apparently preserved for consuming them at leisure. Another interesting feature that we noticed inside the Jarawa huts was the presence of several skulls of wild boars hung from the ceilings. It was explained to us that the superiority among the various Jarawas tribal groups is judged by the number of wild boars killed by them. The larger the number of wild boars killed by a tribal group, the higher becomes its hierarchy in their tribal social strata.

The Jarawas affix great importance to trees in their territory, and each male marks a tree as his own. Like other Andaman tribes, the Jarawas acknowledge an anthropomorphic deity, Phalgun, who is feared for his wrath in the form of storms, but do not worship him. They attach great significance to dreams and believe that the ancestors are said to be able to influence events in their lives or cause disasters like earthquakes when angry. The Jarawas sing and dance at each full moon. The daily ritual dances are also central to communal life and are held on the land enclosed by huts.

The Jarawas believe in the institution of marriage, but marriages are seldom performed outside the tribal group. The Darwin's concepts of 'Struggle for Existence' and 'Survival of the Fittest' seem to be deeply ingrained in the psyche of the Jarawas. The young ones are forced to lead an independent life from a very young age. Thus, one could find many hutments consisting only of young ones living on their own.

The Andaman Administration, through its Department of Tribal Welfare, has been taking care to ensure the proper wellbeing and survival of these tribals. The Jarawas are only a little over 330 in numbers. Their number had gone to a critical low of 70 in 1931, when a large number of tribals had died in internecine wars with the rival Great Andamanis, when the Andaman Islands were ruled by the British. Over the years their numbers began to increase and in 1961over 500 Jarawas existed. The contact with the outside world also had its adverse impact on the tribals, who had to encounter hitherto unknown diseases like measles, to which they have no immunity. It is indeed the duty of humanity to preserve these beautiful people and their unique culture from the onslaught of "civilization"!

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